Frequently Asked Questions

Are Young Living products FDA approved?

The ingredients in our dietary supplements and foods are approved by the FDA for consumption. The ingredients in our cosmetics are approved by the FDA for cosmetic use. The FDA has not approved Young Living's products, but the ingredients used in our products.

Does Young Living have a religious affiliation?

While Young Living's owners have deep religious convictions, the company neither endorses nor is affiliated with any religious organization. Young Living acknowledges and respects the rights of people of all faiths.

What is Young Living’s policy regarding Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)?

Young Living takes pride in utilizing the highest quality botanicals for its essential oils and oil-infused products. Every effort is made to ensure that the ingredients in our products are the purest and most potent available.Young Living goes to great lengths to formulate and use non-GMO (genetically modified organism) sources for its products whenever they are both verifiable and available. Although in the majority of cases we are able to certify that Young Living product ingredients are non-GMO, there are instances when sourcing and manufacturing constraints require the use of botanicals and materials that are uncertified or untraceable back to a verifiable non-GMO source. In addition, there are no clear guidelines on unified labeling standards from U.S. government agencies regarding non-GMO labeling.We reaffirm our commitment to offering safe, effective, and high-quality products to our customers and members around the world. We are continuously researching ways to provide the highest quality and most natural products for our members.

Are Young Living products tested on animals?

Young Living has a policy against testing the efficacy or safety of its products on animals. Young Living’s products are formulated to be safe for nearly all users, and animal testing is neither required nor performed in our product development process

How does Young Living ensure that its products do not contain heavy metals?

All raw ingredients used in Young Living products are tested for contaminants, including heavy metals, and must meet strict specifications.

Does Young Living use pesticides?

We do not use pesticides at our Young Living farms or our partner farms. Both our farm practices and finished products are held to strict standards, and with the measures we have in place, we feel confident that we offer our members the best, purest products available.

I see the term “carrier oil” used in several places. What is a carrier oil, what does it do, and why should I use it?

I see the term “carrier oil” used in several places. What is a carrier oil, what does it do, and why should I use it? – A carrier oil is a vegetable oil such as coconut oil or grapeseed oil that can be used to dilute EO. YL V-6 Vegetable Oil Complex is an excellent carrier oil for all applications. Carrier oils ensure that EOs applied topically are comfortable. Dilution with a carrier oil does not dilute the effect of the EO, and prevents waste due to excessive application. Vegetable shortening, butter, margarine or petroleum derivatives (petrolatum jelly) should never be used as carrier oils. Some consumers choose to avoid olive oil as a carrier oil because of its strong aroma and thick viscosity.

What if I experience skin discomfort or irritation?

If discomfort or irritation occurs, stop using the EO, and apply V-6 or other carrier oil to the affected area. Never use water in an attempt to flush the oil off the skin, as this may increase discomfort. If a rash occurs this may be a sign of detoxification; drink adequate water to encourage the release and removal of body toxins. Toxins present in petrochemical based soaps and skin care products, detergents and perfumes may trigger some of the detoxification reactions. Consider discontinuation of these agents if a reaction occurs. Before using the EO again, perform a patch test (see above) and dilute with carrier oil as needed. Water drives oil into the skin and the eyes. If EO gets in your eye, flush with V-6 carrier oil to alleviate any discomfort. Discomfort should be alleviated within minutes. If eye discomfort does not subside within 5 minutes, please seek medical attention. Be aware that some documents suggest diluting the oil with water. YL suggests that you dilute with carrier oil to ensure that discomfort is alleviated as quickly as possible.

Can essential oils be applied to sensitive areas?

YL recommends that you avoid contact with EOs and sensitive areas such as eyes, ears, genitals and mucous membranes. If you choose to use the oil in any sensitive area, dilute 1 drop of the essential oil to 5-10 drops of V-6 carrier oil.

I’m new to essential oils. How are they used?

I’m new to essential oils. How are they used? –There are three basic ways to use essential oils (EO): topically (applied to the skin), orally (ingested by mouth), and as aromatherapy (directly inhaled or diffused). Each bottle of Young Living essential oil is labeled with directions for how that oil can be used, and these directions vary based on location. For example, Neroli and Jasmine are labeled for topically or aromatic use only, while Peppermint is labeled for oral use in the United States.

How often can essential oils be applied? How much do I use?

Proper usage is indicated on each EO label. Please follow label instructions. The idea of “if a little is good, a lot is better” is not always correct. Essential oils are very potent and powerful– start low and go slow. In most cases 1-2 drops are adequate and using more may waste product. Depending on the EO you can gradually build up to 3-4 uses per day if desired. Excessive use of essential oils may increase the risk for adverse reactions.

Can essential oils be used on children?

Many EOs are appropriate for use with children, and they should be diluted prior to use. Some YL products are pre-diluted with carrier oil as indicated on product label and are intended for direct application on children. Children generally respond well to EO, and use of a carrier oil is recommended. 1-2 drops of EO such as SleepyIze, RutaVala, Gentle Baby and Peace & Calming may be diluted in carrier oil and applied to the bottom of the feet.

How does exposure to sun affect essential oil use?

Some EOs, especially citrus oils, contain natural molecules that react with sunlight (UV light) and cause a sensitivity reaction. All YL EOs and oil blends that contain these compounds are labeled with a warning to avoid sun/UV light for 12 to 48 hours after applying. Caution should always be used when starting to use a new oil: use patch testing (see above), dilute and apply the oil to skin that is protected from sun/UV exposure to reduce the risk of sensitivity. YL beauty and cosmetic products are formulated to remove sunU sensitizing agents to reduce the risk of sun sensitivity.

What is a hot oil?

"Hot oils” are oils that, when applied to the skin, can cause a hot or burning sensation. YL recommends using a patch test procedure prior to first use. To perform a patch test, apply 1-2 drops of EO to a patch of skin such as the forearm. Observe that area of skin over the course of 1-2 hours for any noticeable reaction; usually reactions occur within 5-10 minutes. If you experience a hot or burning sensation or if you develop a rash, add V-6 carrier oil to the affected area as often as needed. Examples of “hot” oils include cinnamon, clove, lemongrass, peppermint, oregano, thyme, Exodus II, and Thieves.

Can essential oils be used during pregnancy or while nursing?

As with any medical condition it is strongly recommended that, prior to use of essential oils, you seek the advice and recommendation of a competent, trained health care advisor who is experienced in EO usage. It is generally recommended to avoid overuse and excessive use of Clary Sage (Salvia&sclarea), Sage (Salvia&officinalis), Tansy (Tanacetum&vulgare), Hyssop (Hyssopus&officinalis), Fennel (Foeniculum&vulgare), and Wintergreen (Gaultheria&procumbens) as well as the blends and supplements that contain these oils.

Are Young Living essential oils certified organic?

Young Living prides itself on offering the purest and most effective essential oils possible, and we are often asked if our oils are certified organic. The organic certification, while important, is far from the only standard of quality by which to judge essential oils. Young Living practices a unique Seed to Seal® quality process that goes beyond the current organic standard in many ways. At Young Living, we don’t just rely on others to verify the purity of our oils. We work directly with our farms, growers, and distillers to ensure the quality, integrity, and authenticity of every product we produce. Our passion and commitment is to produce 100-percent pure, unadulterated essential oils that retain all of the natural constituents and therapeutic properties nature intended.Our Seed to Seal process ensures the purest therapeutic-grade essential oils through careful monitoring of every step of essential oil production—from the time a seed is sourced until the oil is sealed in the bottle. Every batch of our essential oils, whether cultivated on our own farms or by one of our carefully vetted partner growers, is rigorously tested and subjected to careful review through every step of production and meets or exceeds industry safety and purity standards. Young Living’s dedication to quality ensures that we provide pure, therapeutic-grade essential oils with the complete, optimal blend of plant constituents to provide maximum potency and results.As millions of satisfied members and customers across the globe can testify, Young Living sets the standard for purity and quality in the essential oil industry. While standards and guidelines can vary and be modified, our dedication to providing the safest, most beneficial essential oils in the world will never change.

Does Young Living use pesticides?

We do not use pesticides at our Young Living farms or our partner farms. Both our farm practices and finished products are held to strict standards, and with the measures we have in place, we feel confident that we offer our members the best, purest products available.

What tests does Young Living conduct on their essential oils?

Young Living uses its own internal labs and third-party facilities to verify that Young Living purity and potency standards are met. Each batch of essential oil is sent through six rigorous tests and must meet established quality benchmarks to pass through successfully.* Mass Spectrometer—Identifies the names of each constituent (plant chemicals) in the oil.*Gas Chromatograph—Measures the percentage of constituents in the oil.*Refractive Index—Measures the density of the oil using a concentrated beam of light. *Specific Gravity—Measures how heavy the oil is as compared to water.*Flash Point—Ignites the oil and tests it against standard flash temperatures.*Optical Rotation—Measures the molecular structure of the oil.Once the tests are complete, the results are compared to the vast library of information Young Living has amassed over 20 years. This library of oil data is unmatched in the industry. If the incoming oils do not meet the established profile, they are rejected and not allowed to be bottled as a Young Living product.

What is the shelf life of Young Living oils?

Young Living’s essential oils do not expire and will maintain their integrity, efficacy, and beneficial properties virtually indefinitely, provided they are stored properly in a dark-glass bottle, upright and tightly sealed, out of sunlight, and in cool temperatures.

Can I store essential oils in plastic containers?

We recommend that members store essential oils in their original containers. However, if you would like to store your oils in different containers, we recommend using dark-colored glass. We do not recommend storing undiluted essential oils in plastic containers because many essential oils are incompatible with plastic material.

Are essential oils safe for use on or around animals?

Many people successfully use Young Living products with their animals. We offer Animal Scents™ products that are designed for use with animals, including an Animal Scents oil collection. For more information on this collection, please visit

Are Young Living essential oils distilled multiple times?

Each batch of Young Living essential oil is only processed/distilled from plants once before bottling.

How are Young Living essential oils created?

Essential oils are aromatic liquids distilled or extracted from shrubs, flowers, trees, roots, bushes, fruit, and seeds. Most Young Living essential oils are extracted using steam distillation. Our food-grade stainless steel distillers are based on a state-of-the-art design that uses very low pressure and low temperature, which is critical for preserving all of the fragile therapeutic constituents of essential oils. Plants are steam distilled in small batches for extended periods using a special low-pressure, low-heat vertical steam technology. Our citrus oils are cold pressed from the rinds of their designated fruit, such as bergamot, orange, grapefruit, tangerine, and lemon. No solvents or synthetic chemicals of any kind are used or added in either method.

Is it possible to be allergic to essential oils?

Essential oils do not generally contain the proteins responsible for allergic reactions, which minimizes the likelihood of an allergic reaction. However, individual sensitivities do vary, and people can still experience sensitivities to essential oils. When using a new essential oil, dilution and a skin spot test is a good idea to ensure that you do not experience any sensitivity to that particular oil.

How many drops are in a 5-ml and 15-ml bottle of essential oil?

There are approximately 85 drops (1 teaspoon) in a 5-ml bottle and approximately 250 drops (1 tablespoon) in a 15-ml bottle.

Are essential oils still effective and safe to use if they have been left in the heat?

UV exposure will cause the greatest damage to the constituents of essential oils, and heat and light combined will affect them even more quickly. If a package is delivered and sitting on the porch for several hours (or even a few days), but the oils are not directly exposed to UV light, the efficacy of the oils will not be compromised. If the oil is hot, cool it before using. Prolonged exposure to light will cause the oil constituents to change or diminish.

Can essential oils be used neat (without dilution) on the skin?

Some essential oils can be used neat on the skin. All label instructions should be followed. Our labels indicate when an essential oil should be diluted. If it is an essential oil that you have never used, dilution and a skin spot test is a good idea to ensure that you do not experience any sensitivity to that particular essential oil.

Can essential oils be ingested?

Many essential oils can be ingested. All of our oils that can be ingested feature a white Supplement Facts box on the product label and dietary usage instructions online. Research indicates that some oils are more effective when taken orally. Only pure essential oils, proven safe and labeled as dietary supplements, should be used internally. Dilution and dosage is dependent on the age, size, and the health constitution of the individual. Follow the recommended dosage on individual product labels to ensure safety or seek the advice of a health professional before administering oils internally.

Can I cook with essential oils? How much do I use?

You can add essential oils in your favorite recipes that call for dried herbs, spices, or fruit juices. Simply replace these ingredients with the equivalent essential oil. Keep in mind that essential oils have a much stronger flavor than dried herbs and spices, so a much smaller amount is generally sufficient. We recommend starting out with small amounts of oil, and then increasing the amount according to your own taste. Also, remember that essential oils have highly volatile constituents and can be changed or altered during the cooking process, so it is best to avoid exposing them to extreme heat. This can be prevented by lowering your stovetop temperature, using essential oils in conjunction with extra virgin olive oil, or by adding oils after the dish has been removed from heat.These ratios can also provide a guideline for how much essential oil to use in substitutions:• Juice or zest of 1 citrus fruit = 10–15 drops of oil• 1 liquid tablespoon or more = ½–1 drop of oil• Less than 1 tablespoon = 1 toothpick swirl of oil

Do essential oils contain the vitamins present in the plant?

Due to the distillation process, there are no appreciable amounts of vitamins in essential oils.

Does Young Living provide testing reports for its essential oils?

Every batch of Young Living essential oil goes through stringent GC/MS testing to ensure our strict standards are met. These reports are proprietary and regarded as trade secrets.

Does Young Living practice sustainable growing methods?

We are committed to being responsible stewards of the environment and take great care to preserve and protect our planet’s natural resources. These core values are evident in our Seed to Seal® philosophy, which promotes sustainable farming and sourcing practices, while enabling us to produce the purest, most potent essential oils in the world.

A bottle of essential oil that I just received from Young Living looks half empty. Why is that?

Fill level appearances can differ because the bottles are filled by liquid volume, not cosmetically, or the way it appears in the bottle. Some bottles can appear partially empty, but Young Living has strict standards to ensure that our bottles always contain the volume amount indicated on the bottle label, typically either 5 ml or 15 ml. Bottle thickness can also vary, causing some bottles to appear more full than others.

What does Young Living do with the leftover material from oil distillation?

The remaining material from oil distillation is used in compost.

Is the plastic in Young Living diffusers safe for use with essential oils?

We test the plastics used for our diffusers to ensure that the plastics are stable when in contact with essential oils during normal use. However, remember to clean your diffuser often to prolong the lifespan of the unit.

Are Young Living diffusers BPA free?


What type of wood is the Aria Diffuser made out of?


How quickly will the AromaLux diffuse a 15-ml bottle of oil?

If the diffuser is set to the highest settings, it will empty a 15-ml bottle in approximately 6 hours. However, keep in mind that we recommend running the AromaLux in intervals, not continuously.

What are the dimensions of the Frankincense Resin Burner?

The dimensions for the Frankincense Resin Burner are:* Height: 6.75"* Width on top: 4.5"* Width on bottom: 3.25"

How much resin does the Frankincense Resin bag contain?

One bag of Frankincense Resin contains about 100 grams of resin, though the exact amount may vary.

Is burning Frankincense Resin stronger than diffusing Frankincense essential oil?

No. Burning resin is not more potent than diffusing pure Frankincense essential oil. Frankincense Resin contains only about 5 percent essential oil.

Can you fill Clear Vegetable Capsules ahead of time?

We recommend preparing the capsules as needed because they are designed to dissolve quickly.

What is the proper way to clean Young Living Titanium Cookware?

To keep our Titanium Cookware at its best, we recommend cleaning with warm water and a little dishwashing liquid on a 3M scouring pad. Do not wash the cookware in the dishwasher. Do not use scouring pads (other than the 3M green plastic scouring pads), steel wool, or abrasive cleaners.

Do the Glass Oil Droppers screw onto the oil bottles?

The Glass Oil Droppers are not designed to fit onto the essential oil bottles.

What are the roller balls for the AromaGlide Roller Fitments made of?

Stainless steel.

Do AromaGlide Roller Fitments work with all Young Living essential oil bottles?

Yes. AromaGlide™ Roller Fitments are designed to fit all Young Living essential oil bottles. Occasionally, there may be variances in the blown glass that make some fitments tighter or looser than others. If you find a fitment does not seem to fit properly, remove that fitment and try it on a different bottle.

Does the plastic used in the YL Blender Bottle contain BPA?

The Blender Bottle cup is made of polypropylene, and the lid and flip cap are made of high-density polyethylene. These types of plastics (PP and HDPE) do not have BPA concerns.

What size of bottle does the Essential Oil Carrying Cases hold?

The carrying cases are designed to fit 5-ml bottles only.

Can KidScents Bath Gel, Shampoo, and Lotion be used on newborns?

KidScents® products are not designed for infants. Infants have very sensitive skin, so we recommend consulting with a health professional before using these products. KidScents products should be safe for use if your family’s pediatrician has determined that they are suitable for your child.

What are the recommended ages for KidScents MightyZyme?

Children ages 6–12.

What are the recommended ages for KidScents MightyVites?

Children ages 4–12.

What are the preservatives in KidScents Shampoo or Lotion?

There are no added preservatives in KidScents Shampoo or Lotion; the essential oils preserve the product.

Why is fructose used in MightyVites and MightyZyme?

The fructose in KidScents MightyVites™ and MightZyme™ gives them a chewy consistency and better taste.

Is MightyZyme vegetarian and/or vegan?

KidScents MightyZyme is a vegetarian product but not vegan.

Can the KidScents Oil Collection blends be ingested?

The KidScents Oil Collection essential oil blends are not intended to be ingested.

For what ages are the essential oils in the KidScents Oil Collection recommended?

They are suitable for children ages 2–12.

Do the essential oils in the KidScents Oil Collection contain potential allergens?

All of the essential oil blends in the KidScents Oil Collection are diluted with coconut oil. The GeneYus™ blend also contains almond oil.

Is Tender Tush safe for cloth diapers?

Tender Tush™ may be used with cloth diapers; however, it may cause slight staining due to the inclusion of Blue Tansy in the formulation.

Do the Animal Scents Care Collection oils need to be diluted for topical application?

Dilution is required for smaller animals, especially cats.

My pet licks Animal Scents Ointment off of his paws. Could this be harmful?

Ingesting small amounts of Animal Scents™ Ointment (licking paws) should not be harmful to your pet.

Is it normal for Animal Scents Ointment to appear hard and waxy?

Yes. As Animal Scents Ointment cools after it is filled in its container, it turns from a warm liquid into a firmer, wax-like balm.

Are there added sugars or sweeteners in Einkorn Nuggets?

Einkorn Nuggets are sweetened with stevia, coconut syrup, and banana puree.

Does Slique Gum contain Slique Essence essential oil blend?

Slique Gum contains Peppermint and Spearmint oils, which are included in the Slique Essence blend. The Slique line includes different products with different ingredients to provide solutions geared toward achieving healthy weight management. Slique Gum’s main function is to deliver Frankincense resin (which was used anciently by travelers in the Middle East to reduce hunger cravings) in a chewing gum.

Does Slique Essence have to be used in conjunction with Slique Tea or Slique Slim Caps to be effective?

Slique Tea and Slique Slim Caps work synergistically with Slique Essence essential oil blend to help support healthy weight management, but each product can also be used individually.

How often can I use Slique Tea? Do I need to take it with a meal?

You can consume Slique Tea as often as you would any other beverage or tea. It can be used before and after workouts, with meals, or any time you need a natural boost.

How much caffeine is in Slique Tea?

When steeped according to the directions on the box, Slique Tea contains around 28–30 mg of caffeine per serving.

Does freezing affect NingXia Red’s efficacy?

The beneficial ingredients and compounds in NingXia Red® are not degraded or transformed during freezing. However, if you choose to freeze NingXia Red, we recommend removing it from the glass bottle to prevent it from cracking.

Why does Young Living use soy as an ingredient?

We use soy in Young Living products because it is a great source of healthy protein.

Do sulfates in personal care products have harmful effects on the body?

Sulfates are a group of cleansing agents widely used in skin and hair care products today. The most common are sodium lauryl sulfate, ammonium lauryl sulfate, and sodium laureth sulfate. Sulfates are inexpensive and produce a rich, foamy lather in soaps and shampoos. Many consumers are concerned about having sulfates in their products because sulfates can sometimes cause irritation and drying and may have other unknown side effects. The scientific community generally regards sulfates as safe, but Young Living has chosen not to use sulfates in our personal care products.

Do any of Young Living’s personal care products contain parabens?

Parabens, including butylparaben, ethylparaben, methylparaben, and propylparaben, are a class of preservatives commonly used in personal care products. Many people have safety concerns about the widespread use of parabens in commercial products. Because of these concerns and our commitment to providing the best products available, Young Living does not use parabens in our personal care products.

Is the packaging used for Young Living’s personal care products BPA free?

All of our personal care products are packaged in BPA-free plastic.

Is the palm oil used in Young Living’s products obtained from a sustainable source?

Palm oil is an oil created from the fruit of the oil palms and contains many beneficial phytonutrients, including antioxidants. Palm oil is used in a wide range of products, and this widespread use has led to the clearing of rainforests in parts of the world.Young Living always strives to use ingredients that come from renewable, sustainable sources. We share concerns with environmental activist groups about ingredients that may be sourced from rainforests. While we cannot always share information about our ingredient sources with our customers, we care very deeply about the environment and value our stewardship to the earth.

How does Young Living test its personal care products?

Young Living is committed to providing our members with the safest, highest quality products possible. In addition to the stringent testing we conduct on the essential oils in our products, we also send samples of our personal care products to third-party laboratories for dermatological skin irritation testing and perform multiple tests to make sure that our formulas are stable for their shelf life. Other testing specific to certain products may also be conducted.

 Why is Progessence Plus not in an amber bottle like other Young Living essential oils?

Young Living essential oils are typically stored in amber bottles to protect the bottle’s contents from UV rays. However, because the amount used is particularly important with Progessence Plus™, we have chosen to store it in a transparent bottle. This way you can clearly see how much product is remaining. The integrity of the product should not be compromised if it is stored properly.

How much progesterone is in Progessence Plus?

Progessence Plus contains 15 mg of progesterone per milliliter or 1 mg per drop.

Is the ART Skin Care System for all skin types?

Yes. The cleanser, toner, and moisturizer in the ART® Skin Care System are suitable for all skin types. This system is intended as the first three fundamental steps in skin care. For more specific benefits, such as moisturizing extra dry skin, exfoliating, etc., we offer additional products.

What regimen should I follow if I want to use both the ART Creme Masque and Beauty Masque?

The ART Beauty Masque is designed to be used 3–4 times per week. We recommend using the ART Creme Masque 2–3 times per week, in between the Beauty Masque treatments.

Are Young Living’s hair care products safe for colored hair?

Our Copaiba Shampoo and Conditioner and Lavender Mint Shampoo and Conditioner have been tested and proven color safe. Our Lavender Shampoo and Conditioner has not been officially tested, but was formulated to not harm color-treated hair.

Young Living shampoos do not seem to lather as much as other shampoos on the market. Is this normal?

Many commercial soaps and shampoos contain synthetic foaming agents that produce a rich, foamy lather. These ingredients are widely used because they are inexpensive and consumers like the lather. However, because of safety and irritation concerns, Young Living’s products do not include these synthetic foaming agents. This means that our shampoos, which still clean effectively, do not lather as much.

Are Young Living’s soaps French milled or hard milled?

Our bar soaps are French milled, also known as triple milled.

Are Young Living soaps and washes biodegradable?

Yes, the bar soaps and bath and shower gels are biodegradable.

Is Rose Ointment supposed to appear solid and waxy?

Yes. As Rose Ointment cools after it is filled in its container, it turns from a warm liquid into a firmer, wax-like balm.

Which ingredients act as preservatives in your lotions and bath gels?

Typically, the essential oils in our bath gels and body lotions act as preservatives. Lavender Hand & Body Lotion also contains naturally derived sorbic acid to help preserve the product.

Does the Grapefruit essential oil in Grapefruit Lip Balm raise any photosensitivity concerns?

According to independent research by the International Fragrance Research Association* and our own in-house photosensitivity testing, the level of Grapefruit essential oil included in Grapefruit Lip Balm should pose no photosensitivity issues.*

Can children use Thieves AromaBright Toothpaste?

Yes, AromaBright™ toothpaste is safe for children.

Are Thieves toothpastes appropriate for individuals with sensitive teeth?

Yes, Thieves® toothpastes are appropriate for individuals with sensitive teeth.

How does Thieves Foaming Hand Soap foam?

Thieves Foaming Hand Soap contains gentle, cleansing ingredients made from coconuts and is packaged in a special pump that creates foam during use.

Can Thieves Household Cleaner be used on hardwood floors?

Thieves Household Cleaner is generally safe for hardwood floors; however, we recommend doing a spot test in an inconspicuous location before cleaning the entire floor. You may also want to contact your floor manufacturer for information on the finish that may interact negatively with Thieves Household Cleaner.